Here's the definition of torture. Next question
tor·ture [tawr-cher] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation noun, verb, -tured, -tur·ing.
1. the act of inflicting excruciating pain, as punishment or revenge, as a means of getting a confession or information, or for sheer cruelty.
1.This is unresponsive to my question. I asked Reppert if he could provide me with a philosophically stringent definition of “torture.” Evidently, he can’t.
2.This definition only apply to certain forms of physical duress, not psychological duress.
3.On this definition, painless techniques like sleep deprivation don’t count as torture.
4.On this definition, Paul and Patricia Churchland couldn’t classify anything as torture since they deny the reality of mental states like pain.
4.Is waterboarding torture on this definition? Is “excruciating pain” a defining effect of waterboarding? I thought that people break under waterboarding for two other reasons:
i) It induces an involuntary gag-effect.
ii) It triggers a drowning phobia.
Neither of these is equivalent to “excruciating pain,” and it would be easy to come up with various techniques that are far more painful, viz. electric-shock torture.