[Quote] These weaknesses of the harm-based approach become clearest when Sinnott-Armstrong presents his answer to "why be moral"—that is, why be moral in the way he describes. He can only offer the response that "The fact that an act causes harm to others is a reason not to do that act, and the fact that an act prevents harm to others is a reason to do that act." (Page 117.) But on this account, there is not much to say about why one should care about harm to others, other than the thin comfort of it not being irrational. Sinnott-Armstrong concedes that
"Nontheless, some people still wish for a reason that is strong enough to motivate everyone to be moral and also to make it always irrational to be immoral. I doubt that secular moral theories can establish that strong kind of reason to be moral. For people who really do not care about others, the solution is found in retraining or restraining rather than in theory. (Page 118.)"