SH: "I learn the concept of a “dog” by observation."
What if you saw a black lab. How would have the concept of "dog" from this?
If you saw a boxer, which doesn't look the same as the black lab (brown, cliped ears, etc), how could apply the concept "dog" to the boxer?
What is it about the dog that you "observe" which allows you to form a universal concept, dogness?
Do you "abstract" dogness? How so? What does an abstract "nose" look like? Nothing (or, some indefinable "stuff). So, is your concept of dog a concept of nothing, or a blob?
How is the concept formed? Break it down for us, please.
Hopefully this shows that Christian apologists should take the works of G.H. Clark more seriously. This empiricism should not be allowed to stand in Christendom.
(Yes, yes, I know you already posted stuff on Dr. Clark, though I've not seen where you've interacted with these particular type of objections.)
1. Are you operating with a universal concept of dog which you apply alike to a boxers and a black lab?
You yourself are using a canine category despite various differences between one dog breed and another.
2.There’s more to forming a concept of “dog” than what a dog looks like. One can observe canine behavior. One can observe canine breeding. Internal physiology. &c. &c.
3.One can also have an abstract concept of a nose, not based on appearance, but on the function of a nose.
4.A veterinarian or dog-breeder will have a more detailed concept than a two-year old.
5. It isn’t necessary for me to have a “universal” concept of dog. Human classification schemes don’t have to be infallible to be useful.
My concept of “dog” may be somewhat vague, provisional, and arbitrary. I may misclassify a marsupial as a mammal.
So what? It’s possible to generalize without being inerrant. Sometimes I may overgeneralize.
So I made a mistake. That happens. That’s a feature of our finitude.
6.In fact, there are times when we deliberately oversimplify a problem. Leave out various exceptions or borderline cases. Otherwise we couldn’t discuss it at all.
7. We have designed machines with pattern recognition programs. They pick out concrete objects that are roughly alike.
Is this based on a universal concept? No.
But within certain parameters, it works.