Tuesday, June 07, 2011

Crossing over into camp ground

This post grows out of some correspondence I had with a couple of friends.

Traditionally, both amils and dispies have a fairly otherworldly eschatology. The final state is “heaven.”

To my knowledge, the dispy concern with the land is confined to Eretz Israel: the land-promises given to Abraham and his posterity. And that’s also confined to the Millennium. So it’s narrowly confined in time and space alike. 

But, ironically, that’s too narrow. To some extent, both time and space figure in our human identity. Where we grow up (“the land”) has a shaping effect on who we are. Territorial distinctives are part of what make people a people-group. It conditions group psychology. Accounts, in part, for regional and national characteristics. Land and culture often go together. This is underemphasize in traditional eschatology.

Of course, the Bible also has a pilgrim motif. Where God’s people are drifters and wayfarers. Refugees and exiles.

That, however, is viewed as an unnatural state. A deprivation. Something which the final state will remedy.

The extent to which the land defines us is bound up with our status as embodied creatures, as well as creatures who slowly mature from infancy, learning from experience. Man has a dialectical relationship with nature. He is shaped by his environment, but he can also reshape his environment. “Subdue” it. We both rely depend upon as well as transcend our physical circumstances.

i) Hardline amils like Kline/Irons, and Robertson have certain theological commitments which exert strong or overwhelming pressure against allowing for the endtime restoration of Israel in Rom 11.

By contrast, my general theological commitments exert no directional pressure one way or the other on that question. True or false, it wouldn’t necessitate any major readjustments in my theology.

ii) Off-the-top of my head, I believe the appeal to Rom 11 turns on two issues:

a) Defining “all Israel”

b) Defining the timeframe

Last time I studied the issue, “all Israel” was an idiomatic phrase (distinct from “Israel”), which had a representative denotation in OT usage, i.e. tribes and chieftains. 

I’d have to revisit the arguments pro and con on the timeframe.

iii) On a broader front, there’s an apostasy-and-restoration motif in the OT vis-à-vis Israel. That also ties into OT (and NT) remnant theology.

The question is whether that cycle terminates with the new covenant. Put another way, does the story end on the note of apostasy–or restoration?

Not sure that we can say, but given the climactic structure of the Bible’s grand narrative, it would certainly make sense if Israel’s penultimate apostasy were reversed in Israel’s ultimate reconciliation.

One issue is whether dispies are true to their own principles when they interpret/apply the land-promises:

i) Are they true to the geographical terms of the land-promises? There’s a potential equivocation here. Is the land the same land after 4000 years (and counting)? It may be the same address, but is it the same place? A lot can change over the course of centuries or millennia. An oasis can become a desert, or vice versa. A forest can become a metropolis.

Conversely, you can have a different piece of property that is more like the original than what the original became.

ii) Are they true to the genealogical terms of the land-promises? If we’re taking this literally, then the only Jews who are entitled to claim the land are lineal descents of Abraham. How many modern Israeli Jews are physical descendants of Abraham?

iii) Are they true to original intent? When God made his promise to Abraham, did Abraham envision a sprawling, hitech metropolis like Tel Aviv? Isn’t that a pretty anachronistic fulfillment of the land-promises?

iv) Are they true to grammatico-historical exegesis? In terms of “forever,” we have to consider if that was a conventional legal formula. Land-grants were held “in perpetuity”–as an idiomatic synonym: “for life.” Cf. NIDOTTE 4:1254.

Of course, one might argue that the land is promised to successive generations. But that’s not something one gets from the “forever” formula in isolation.

So I think dispies fudge on the key terms.

Putting dispensationalism to one side:

i) A standard amil move is to treat the land-grants as “shadows” which prefigure heaven or “the church” or the blessings of the new covenant.

Up-to-a-point, a strong exegetical case can be made for that interpretation. However, it only pushes the question back a step. What does “heaven” stand for? What are the blessings of the new covenant?

So I think that’s good as far as it goes, but it leaves the issue dangling without clear resolution. In that respect it’s too superficial.

ii) Another standard amil move is to emphasize the conditionality of the land-promises. But that’s tricky:

a) On the one hand, dispies appeal to unconditional covenants. Yet that may be deceptively simple. In Scripture, threats and promises are often implicitly conditional, even if the riders aren’t repeated in every occurrence. Rather, that’s generally an unspoken understanding.

b) On the other hand, dispies also appeal to postexilic oracles of restoration. These seem to look beyond the Deuteronomic curse sanctions.

And, of course, the land-promises antedate the Deuteronomic curse sanctions. For the land-promises originate in the Abrahamic covenant, not the Mosaic covenant. And not only des the Abrahamic covenant predate the Mosaic covenant, but in a sense, the Abrahamic covenant also postdates the Mosaic covenant–for it carries over into the new covenant.

c) Likewise, even if the promises are conditional, that leaves open the question of who is ultimately responsible for meeting the conditions. Is it the human party to the transaction? Or will God preserve a faithful remnant?

iii) I think we need to step back and ask what problem the land-promises were designed to solve.

a) Adam and Eve were given a land-grant (Gen 1).

b) But they were banished from their homeland (Gen 3). By extension, their posterity was banished.

c) Cain was banished (Gen 4).

d) Noah and his family were refugees from the flood (Gen 6-9)

e) Human generally were refugees from Babel (Gen 11).

f) Abraham was forced to leave his homeland and adopt a nomadic lifestyle.

g) The Israelites were refugees in Egypt. And the Exodus-generation perished in the wilderness.

h) Followed by the Assyrian deportation and the Babylonian exile.

i) Jesus predicts the sack of Jerusalem.

So dislocation and dispossession are major themes in Scripture. To that extent, redemption will ultimately involve a restoration of the status quo ante. Not that redemption is merely turning back the clock. But one element is to confer an element of physical security and stability that’s lacking in a fallen world.

iv) And there’s a deeper dynamic. Ultimately, all of us are dispossessed by death. At least temporarily, we lose everything we had on earth.

To restore dying men and women to the “promised land” isn’t full restoration. For it’s only “theirs” until they die. And extending the title-deed to their descendents does nothing to restore the title deed to the decedents.

v) And there’s an even deeper dynamic. If you plant sinners in a tropical paradise, they may turn paradise into a hell on earth. Indeed, that happens repeatedly.

vi) Apropos (iv-v), this is something Abraham could appreciate. One doesn’t have to reinterpret the land-promises with the retrospective benefit of progressive revelation for Abraham to understand the inherent limitations of the promise. That’s not anachronistic. Rather, that’s the human condition. The ravages of sin and the curse of death.

vii) In that respect I think the dispensational interpretation/application is too superficial. How does a temporary millennium in a fallen world really do justice to the problem which the land-promises were designed to solve? Isn’t that anticlimactic?

It’s not the new Eden or the new Jerusalem. Rather, it’s a stopgap.

viii) Ultimately, I think the land-promises envision the final state. A global Eden, occupied by glorified saints.  

Why is Ezekiel’s vision of the temple so detailed?

i) I think that’s largely explicable given the genre–visionary revelation. What we have in Ezk 40-48 is not a blueprint, but a description of Ezekiel’s vision. A divine vision is basically an inspired dream or daydream.

In the nature of the case, a vision must be visual. Pictorial. A seer must be able to see things–in his mind's eye. So there has to be enough visual detail to make it picturable to the seer. Otherwise, there’s nothing to see. Blanks in the field of view.

That’s why all we get is a floorplan. We get the horizontal perspective rather than the vertical perspective because it describes his visionary tour. So the viewpoint reflects that eye-level perspective.

Like a dream, where there must be enough visual “filler” for the dreamer to perceive a dreamscape. A dream is “padded” with visual details to make it picturable.

And, of course, there’s some Edenic symbolism to Ezekiel’s vision of the temple. So it reflects an imaginary montage of Edenic motifs along with architectural motifs from the Solomonic temple. 

ii) There’s another problem: when dispies classify Ezk 40-48 as the “Millennial Temple,” they are filtering the OT through the NT. But the prophet Ezekiel doesn’t situate his temple in John’s Millennium (Rev 20).

That’s a timeframe which dispies are getting from the NT, then retrojecting into the OT. But doesn’t that retrograde interpretation violate dispensational hermeneutics? Aren’t we supposed to read the Bible forward rather than backward? 

This also happens when dispies index the fulfillment of the land-promises to the Millennium. They didn’t get that from Genesis. They didn’t get that from the terms of the Abrahamic covenant. Rather, they reassign the land-promises to Rev 20 (as they construe it).

iii) Strictly speaking, Ezk 40-48 is not a prediction or set of building instructions. It’s a description of something he saw in a vision. So what that refers to in real life is fairly open-ended.

iv) From what I’ve read, I don’t think they were. Moreover, I don’t think that’s even feasible.

a) For instance, there is no “high mountain” in Jerusalem. 40:2 is designed to evoke Mt. Zion, but Mt. Zion is hardly a high mountain. Not even close. It also triggers associations with Mt. Sinai and Mt. Nebo, which are nowhere near Jerusalem. So we have a mountainous montage.

b) Likewise, the mile-long dimensions of the temple don’t fit the preexisting topography of Jerusalem. Larger-than-life.

While God could miraculously alter the preexisting topography, it seems like an idiosyncratic definition of “literal” fulfillment to radically retrofit the physical terrain to make the (alleged) prediction squeeze into the allotted dimensions. A classic deus ex machina.

c) Likewise, a river with its headwaters in the temple doesn't correspond to any actual river or tributary in Jerusalem. Rather, that’s designed to evoke the rivers of Eden–off in Mesopotamia, not Jerusalem.

But all this makes sense if the temple is an essentially visionary, emblematic temple. The visionary temple isn’t subject to physical constraints. It doesn’t occupy real space. So its architecture and topography have the elasticity of a dreamscape. Just as we sometimes dream about familiar places, yet the setting undergoes a surreal metamorphosis.

Ezekiel’s vision is allusive, hyperbolic, and numerological.

v) In fairness, dispies are familiar with the types of objections I raise. They respond by appealing to other passages like Zech 14, Rev 16:20, &c. to demonstrate that the endtime will be accompanied by miraculous natural phenomena.

And the Bible certainly contains some spectacular nature-miracles. So we should be open to that interpretation. However:

i) Passages like Zech 14 don’t provide independent confirmation for the dispy interpretation of Ezk 40-48, since they presume the very same hermeneutical approach.

ii) Like the book of Ezekiel, the book of Zechariah is another case of visionary revelation. Both Ezekiel and Zechariah were seers. Zech 1-6 is loaded with esoteric symbolism. So it would be arbitrary to interpret Zech 1-6 symbolically while insisting on the literal interpretation of chap. 14.

iii) Real space and time give rise to spatiotemporal metaphors. Earlier writers, recounting actual events, stock a warehouse with concrete imagery which later writers ransack for picturesque metaphors. To take a few examples:

a) Isaiah uses the new/second Exodus motif to depict the post-exilic restoration. Yet, unlike the Exodus, the post-exilic restoration wasn’t characterized by miracles.

b) The Apostle John depicts the future in terms of the present, using imagery familiar to his audience. Take his use of ancient warfare, viz. the cavalry.

c) Isa 56:1-18 is arguably an endtime oracle. Indeed, it’s part of a whole series of interrelated endtime oracles. For a supporting argument, see G. V. Smith, Isaiah 40-66 (Broadman 2009), 519ff.

This passage depicts Gentile believers as full-blown proselytes, obligated to practice the ceremonial law. Yet that can’t be literally true if we situate the fulfillment in the new covenant. So this is another case in which a prophet portrays the future in terms of the present.

And that’s to be expected. A truly futuristic depiction of distant events would be unintelligible to the historical audience.

iv) Visionary revelation is just a mode of revelation, so that doesn’t necessarily prejudge the content. But while it’s possible for a seer to perceive a literal scene, the advantage of visionary revelation is that it’s more flexible than ordinary perception. In visionary revelation, it’s possible to perceive highly imaginative, physically unrealistic scenarios. Just as we can perceive things in dreams that aren’t possible in real life.

Finally, the interpretation of Rom 11 also turns on the significance of “all Israel.” 

From my study, that’s an idiomatic phrase in OT usage–with a cluster in the Historical Books. It’s not just a case of adding an adjective (“all”) to a noun (“Israel”). Rather, the phrase has a specialized meaning, where it seems to denote a representative sampling, like chieftains, tribes, or clan members.
  1. 1 Samuel 2:22
    Now Eli was very old, and he kept hearing all that his sons were doing to all Israel, and how they lay with the women who were serving at the entrance to the tent of meeting.
    1 Samuel 2:21-23 (in Context) 1 Samuel 2 (Whole Chapter)
  2. 1 Samuel 3:20
    And all Israel from Dan to Beersheba knew that Samuel was established as a prophet of the LORD.
    1 Samuel 3:19-21 (in Context) 1 Samuel 3 (Whole Chapter)
  3. 1 Samuel 4:1
    And the word of Samuel came to all Israel. Now Israel went out to battle against the Philistines. They encamped at Ebenezer, and the Philistines encamped at Aphek.
    1 Samuel 4:1-3 (in Context) 1 Samuel 4 (Whole Chapter)
  4. 1 Samuel 4:5
    As soon as the ark of the covenant of the LORD came into the camp, all Israel gave a mighty shout, so that the earth resounded.
    1 Samuel 4:4-6 (in Context) 1 Samuel 4 (Whole Chapter)
  5. 1 Samuel 7:5
    Then Samuel said, "Gather all Israel at Mizpah, and I will pray to the LORD for you."
    1 Samuel 7:4-6 (in Context) 1 Samuel 7 (Whole Chapter)
  6. 1 Samuel 12:1
    And Samuel said to all Israel, "Behold, I have obeyed your voice in all that you have said to me and have made a king over you.
    1 Samuel 12:1-3 (in Context) 1 Samuel 12 (Whole Chapter)
  7. 1 Samuel 13:4
    And all Israel heard it said that Saul had defeated the garrison of the Philistines, and also that Israel had become a stench to the Philistines. And the people were called out to join Saul at Gilgal.
    1 Samuel 13:3-5 (in Context) 1 Samuel 13 (Whole Chapter)
  8. 1 Samuel 14:40
    Then he said to all Israel, "You shall be on one side, and I and Jonathan my son will be on the other side." And the people said to Saul, "Do what seems good to you."
    1 Samuel 14:39-41 (in Context) 1 Samuel 14 (Whole Chapter)
  9. 1 Samuel 17:11
    When Saul and all Israel heard these words of the Philistine, they were dismayed and greatly afraid.
    1 Samuel 17:10-12 (in Context) 1 Samuel 17 (Whole Chapter)
  10. 1 Samuel 18:16
    But all Israel and Judah loved David, for he went out and came in before them.
    1 Samuel 18:15-17 (in Context) 1 Samuel 18 (Whole Chapter)
  11. 1 Samuel 25:1
    The Death of Samuel ] Now Samuel died. And all Israel assembled and mourned for him, and they buried him in his house at Ramah. Then David rose and went down to the wilderness of Paran.
    1 Samuel 25:1-3 (in Context) 1 Samuel 25 (Whole Chapter)
  12. 1 Samuel 28:3
    Now Samuel had died, and all Israel had mourned for him and buried him in Ramah, his own city. And Saul had put the mediums and the necromancers out of the land.
    1 Samuel 28:2-4 (in Context) 1 Samuel 28 (Whole Chapter)
  13. 1 Samuel 28:4
    The Philistines assembled and came and encamped at Shunem. And Saul gathered all Israel, and they encamped at Gilboa.
    1 Samuel 28:3-5 (in Context) 1 Samuel 28 (Whole Chapter)
  14. 2 Samuel 3:37
    So all the people and all Israel understood that day that it had not been the king’s will to put to death Abner the son of Ner.
    2 Samuel 3:36-38 (in Context) 2 Samuel 3 (Whole Chapter)
  15. 2 Samuel 4:1
    When Ish-bosheth, Saul’s son, heard that Abner had died at Hebron, his courage failed, and all Israel was dismayed.
    2 Samuel 4:1-3 (in Context) 2 Samuel 4 (Whole Chapter)
  16. 2 Samuel 10:17
    And when it was told David, he gathered all Israel together and crossed the Jordan and came to Helam. The Syrians arrayed themselves against David and fought with him.
    2 Samuel 10:16-18 (in Context) 2 Samuel 10 (Whole Chapter)
  17. 2 Samuel 11:1
    David and Bathsheba ] In the spring of the year, the time when kings go out to battle, David sent Joab, and his servants with him, and all Israel. And they ravaged the Ammonites and besieged Rabbah. But David remained at Jerusalem.
    2 Samuel 11:1-3 (in Context) 2 Samuel 11 (Whole Chapter)
  18. 2 Samuel 16:22
    So they pitched a tent for Absalom on the roof. And Absalom went in to his father’s concubines in the sight of all Israel.
    2 Samuel 16:21-23 (in Context) 2 Samuel 16 (Whole Chapter)
  19. 2 Samuel 17:11
    But my counsel is that all Israel be gathered to you, from Dan to Beersheba, as the sand by the sea for multitude, and that you go to battle in person.
    2 Samuel 17:10-12 (in Context) 2 Samuel 17 (Whole Chapter)
  20. 2 Samuel 17:13
    If he withdraws into a city, then all Israel will bring ropes to that city, and we shall drag it into the valley, until not even a pebble is to be found there."
    2 Samuel 17:12-14 (in Context) 2 Samuel 17 (Whole Chapter)
  21. 2 Samuel 18:17
    And they took Absalom and threw him into a great pit in the forest and raised over him a very great heap of stones. And all Israel fled every one to his own home.
    2 Samuel 18:16-18 (in Context) 2 Samuel 18 (Whole Chapter)
  22. 2 Samuel 19:11
    And King David sent this message to Zadok and Abiathar the priests: "Say to the elders of Judah, 'Why should you be the last to bring the king back to his house, when the word of all Israel has come to the king?
    2 Samuel 19:10-12 (in Context) 2 Samuel 19 (Whole Chapter)
  23. 1 Kings 1:20
    And now, my lord the king, the eyes of all Israel are on you, to tell them who shall sit on the throne of my lord the king after him.
    1 Kings 1:19-21 (in Context) 1 Kings 1 (Whole Chapter)
  24. 1 Kings 2:15
    He said, "You know that the kingdom was mine, and that all Israel fully expected me to reign. However, the kingdom has turned about and become my brother’s, for it was his from the LORD.
    1 Kings 2:14-16 (in Context) 1 Kings 2 (Whole Chapter)
  25. 1 Kings 3:28
    And all Israel heard of the judgment that the king had rendered, and they stood in awe of the king, because they perceived that the wisdom of God was in him to do justice.
    1 Kings 3:27-28 (in Context) 1 Kings 3 (Whole Chapter)
  26. 1 Kings 8:62
    Then the king, and all Israel with him, offered sacrifice before the LORD.
    1 Kings 8:61-63 (in Context) 1 Kings 8 (Whole Chapter)
  27. 1 Kings 8:65
    So Solomon held the feast at that time, and all Israel with him, a great assembly, from Lebo-hamath to the Brook of Egypt, before the LORD our God, seven days.
    1 Kings 8:64-66 (in Context) 1 Kings 8 (Whole Chapter)
  28. 1 Kings 11:16
    (for Joab and all Israel remained there six months, until he had cut off every male in Edom).
    1 Kings 11:15-17 (in Context) 1 Kings 11 (Whole Chapter)
  29. 1 Kings 12:1
    Rehoboam went to Shechem, for all Israel had come to Shechem to make him king.
    1 Kings 12:1-3 (in Context) 1 Kings 12 (Whole Chapter)
  30. 1 Kings 12:16
    And when all Israel saw that the king did not listen to them, the people answered the king, "What portion do we have in David? We have no inheritance in the son of Jesse. To your tents, O Israel! Look now to your own house, David." So Israel went to their tents.
    1 Kings 12:15-17 (in Context) 1 Kings 12 (Whole Chapter)
  31. 1 Kings 12:18
    Then King Rehoboam sent Adoram, who was taskmaster over the forced labor, and all Israel stoned him to death with stones. And King Rehoboam hurried to mount his chariot to flee to Jerusalem.
    1 Kings 12:17-19 (in Context) 1 Kings 12 (Whole Chapter)
  32. 1 Kings 12:20
    And when all Israel heard that Jeroboam had returned, they sent and called him to the assembly and made him king over all Israel. There was none that followed the house of David but the tribe of Judah only.
    1 Kings 12:19-21 (in Context) 1 Kings 12 (Whole Chapter)
  33. 1 Kings 14:13
    And all Israel shall mourn for him and bury him, for he only of Jeroboam shall come to the grave, because in him there is found something pleasing to the LORD, the God of Israel, in the house of Jeroboam.
    1 Kings 14:12-14 (in Context) 1 Kings 14 (Whole Chapter)
  34. 1 Kings 14:18
    And all Israel buried him and mourned for him, according to the word of the LORD, which he spoke by his servant Ahijah the prophet.
    1 Kings 14:17-19 (in Context) 1 Kings 14 (Whole Chapter)
  35. 1 Kings 15:27
    Baasha the son of Ahijah, of the house of Issachar, conspired against him. And Baasha struck him down at Gibbethon, which belonged to the Philistines, for Nadab and all Israel were laying siege to Gibbethon.
    1 Kings 15:26-28 (in Context) 1 Kings 15 (Whole Chapter)
  36. 1 Kings 16:16
    and the troops who were encamped heard it said, "Zimri has conspired, and he has killed the king." Therefore all Israel made Omri, the commander of the army, king over Israel that day in the camp.
    1 Kings 16:15-17 (in Context) 1 Kings 16 (Whole Chapter)
  37. 1 Kings 16:17
    So Omri went up from Gibbethon, and all Israel with him, and they besieged Tirzah.
    1 Kings 16:16-18 (in Context) 1 Kings 16 (Whole Chapter)
  38. 1 Kings 18:19
    Now therefore send and gather all Israel to me at Mount Carmel, and the 450 prophets of Baal and the 400 prophets of Asherah, who eat at Jezebel’s table."
    1 Kings 18:18-20 (in Context) 1 Kings 18 (Whole Chapter)
  39. 2 Kings 3:6
    So King Jehoram marched out of Samaria at that time and mustered all Israel.
    2 Kings 3:5-7 (in Context) 2 Kings 3 (Whole Chapter)
  40. 2 Kings 9:14
    Thus Jehu the son of Jehoshaphat the son of Nimshi conspired against Joram. ( Now Joram with all Israel had been on guard at Ramoth-gilead against Hazael king of Syria,
    2 Kings 9:13-15 (in Context) 2 Kings 9 (Whole Chapter)
  41. 1 Chronicles 11:1
    Then all Israel gathered together to David at Hebron and said, "Behold, we are your bone and flesh.
    1 Chronicles 11:1-3 (in Context) 1 Chronicles 11 (Whole Chapter)
  42. 1 Chronicles 11:4
    And David and all Israel went to Jerusalem, that is, Jebus, where the Jebusites were, the inhabitants of the land.
    1 Chronicles 11:3-5 (in Context) 1 Chronicles 11 (Whole Chapter)
  43. 1 Chronicles 11:10
    Now these are the chiefs of David’s mighty men, who gave him strong support in his kingdom, together with all Israel, to make him king, according to the word of the LORD concerning Israel.
    1 Chronicles 11:9-11 (in Context) 1 Chronicles 11 (Whole Chapter)
  44. 1 Chronicles 13:5
    Uzzah and the Ark ] So David assembled all Israel from the Nile of Egypt to Lebo-hamath, to bring the ark of God from Kiriath-jearim.
    1 Chronicles 13:4-6 (in Context) 1 Chronicles 13 (Whole Chapter)
  45. 1 Chronicles 13:6
    And David and all Israel went up to Baalah, that is, to Kiriath-jearim that belongs to Judah, to bring up from there the ark of God, which is called by the name of the LORD who sits enthroned above the cherubim.
    1 Chronicles 13:5-7 (in Context) 1 Chronicles 13 (Whole Chapter)
  46. 1 Chronicles 13:8
    And David and all Israel were rejoicing before God with all their might, with song and lyres and harps and tambourines and cymbals and trumpets.
    1 Chronicles 13:7-9 (in Context) 1 Chronicles 13 (Whole Chapter)
  47. 1 Chronicles 15:3
    And David assembled all Israel at Jerusalem to bring up the ark of the LORD to its place, which he had prepared for it.
    1 Chronicles 15:2-4 (in Context) 1 Chronicles 15 (Whole Chapter)
  48. 1 Chronicles 15:28
    So all Israel brought up the ark of the covenant of the LORD with shouting, to the sound of the horn, trumpets, and cymbals, and made loud music on harps and lyres.
    1 Chronicles 15:27-29 (in Context) 1 Chronicles 15 (Whole Chapter)
  49. 1 Chronicles 16:3
    and distributed to all Israel, both men and women, to each a loaf of bread, a portion of meat, and a cake of raisins.
    1 Chronicles 16:2-4 (in Context) 1 Chronicles 16 (Whole Chapter)
  50. 1 Chronicles 17:6
    In all places where I have moved with all Israel, did I speak a word with any of the judges of Israel, whom I commanded to shepherd my people, saying, "Why have you not built me a house of cedar?"'
    1 Chronicles 17:5-7 (in Context) 1 Chronicles 17 (Whole Chapter)
  51. 1 Chronicles 19:17
    And when it was told to David, he gathered all Israel together and crossed the Jordan and came to them and drew up his forces against them. And when David set the battle in array against the Syrians, they fought with him.
    1 Chronicles 19:16-18 (in Context) 1 Chronicles 19 (Whole Chapter)
  52. 1 Chronicles 28:8
    Now therefore in the sight of all Israel, the assembly of the LORD, and in the hearing of our God, observe and seek out all the commandments of the LORD your God, that you may possess this good land and leave it for an inheritance to your children after you forever.
    1 Chronicles 28:7-9 (in Context) 1 Chronicles 28 (Whole Chapter)
  53. 1 Chronicles 29:23
    Then Solomon sat on the throne of the LORD as king in place of David his father. And he prospered, and all Israel obeyed him.
    1 Chronicles 29:22-24 (in Context) 1 Chronicles 29 (Whole Chapter)
  54. 2 Chronicles 1:2
    Solomon spoke to all Israel, to the commanders of thousands and of hundreds, to the judges, and to all the leaders in all Israel, the heads of fathers’ houses.
    2 Chronicles 1:1-3 (in Context) 2 Chronicles 1 (Whole Chapter)
  55. 2 Chronicles 7:6
    The priests stood at their posts; the Levites also, with the instruments for music to the LORD that King David had made for giving thanks to the LORD— for his steadfast love endures forever—whenever David offered praises by their ministry; opposite them the priests sounded trumpets, and all Israel stood.
    2 Chronicles 7:5-7 (in Context) 2 Chronicles 7 (Whole Chapter)
  56. 2 Chronicles 7:8
    At that time Solomon held the feast for seven days, and all Israel with him, a very great assembly, from Lebo-hamath to the Brook of Egypt.
    2 Chronicles 7:7-9 (in Context) 2 Chronicles 7 (Whole Chapter)
  57. 2 Chronicles 10:1
    Rehoboam went to Shechem, for all Israel had come to Shechem to make him king.
    2 Chronicles 10:1-3 (in Context) 2 Chronicles 10 (Whole Chapter)
  58. 2 Chronicles 10:3
    And they sent and called him. And Jeroboam and all Israel came and said to Rehoboam,
    2 Chronicles 10:2-4 (in Context) 2 Chronicles 10 (Whole Chapter)
  59. 2 Chronicles 10:16
    And when all Israel saw that the king did not listen to them, the people answered the king, "What portion have we in David? We have no inheritance in the son of Jesse. Each of you to your tents, O Israel! Look now to your own house, David." So all Israel went to their tents.
    2 Chronicles 10:15-17 (in Context) 2 Chronicles 10 (Whole Chapter)
  60. 2 Chronicles 12:1
    When the rule of Rehoboam was established and he was strong, he abandoned the law of the LORD, and all Israel with him.
    2 Chronicles 12:1-3 (in Context) 2 Chronicles 12 (Whole Chapter)
  61. 2 Chronicles 30:1
    Hezekiah sent to all Israel and Judah, and wrote letters also to Ephraim and Manasseh, that they should come to the house of the LORD at Jerusalem to keep the Passover to the LORD, the God of Israel.
    2 Chronicles 30:1-3 (in Context) 2 Chronicles 30 (Whole Chapter)
  62. 2 Chronicles 30:6
    So couriers went throughout all Israel and Judah with letters from the king and his princes, as the king had commanded, saying, "O people of Israel, return to the LORD, the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Israel, that he may turn again to the remnant of you who have escaped from the hand of the kings of Assyria.
    2 Chronicles 30:5-7 (in Context) 2 Chronicles 30 (Whole Chapter)
  63. 2 Chronicles 31:1
    Now when all this was finished, all Israel who were present went out to the cities of Judah and broke in pieces the pillars and cut down the Asherim and broke down the high places and the altars throughout all Judah and Benjamin, and in Ephraim and Manasseh, until they had destroyed them all. Then all the people of Israel returned to their cities, every man to his possession.
    2 Chronicles 31:1-3 (in Context) 2 Chronicles 31 (Whole Chapter)
  64. Daniel 9:7
    To you, O Lord, belongs righteousness, but to us open shame, as at this day, to the men of Judah, to the inhabitants of Jerusalem, and to all Israel, those who are near and those who are far away, in all the lands to which you have driven them, because of the treachery that they have committed against you.
    Daniel 9:6-8 (in Context) Daniel 9 (Whole Chapter)
  65. Daniel 9:11
    All Israel has transgressed your law and turned aside, refusing to obey your voice. And the curse and oath that are written in the Law of Moses the servant of God have been poured out upon us, because we have sinned against him.
    Daniel 9:10-12 (in Context) Daniel 9 (Whole Chapter)


  1. This was quite simply excellent, sir. Thank you.


  2. The doctrine of perspicuity when it comes to the doctrine of final things is a bit difficult.

    Thanks for a most excellent compilation of insights.

  3. Not unlike the equality of the denizens of Animal Farm some perpsicuity is more pespicuous than other perpiscuity.


  4. Very nicely written thanks for posting this

  5. In Galatians, Paul seems to take it as a "given" (needing no argument to establish it as fact) that the promise to Abraham and his Seed was actually the "world."

    If that functions as an apostolic interpretation of the land-promise...and I'd have a hard time seeing it otherwise...then how does that impact the whole idea?

    Great post btw. Especially the bit about the temple of Ezekiel.